What The Wandering Earth 2 didn’t say is here

The earth itself is not a hard rock, 40-70 kilometers below the earth’s crust is lava, which is somewhat similar to the structure of an egg. If you want to drive more than 10,000 engines, it will take only a hundred years to push the earth to "walk", and the engine will put pressure on the earth, which the earth cannot afford, and will break the shell of the "egg". And if the engine slowly accelerates and gradually reaches maximum power, the earth will be "wandering" for a longer time, or even thousands of years. During the "wandering" period, it is difficult to predict what will happen to the earth, what will happen to it, and what human civilization will experience.

If the solar crisis is imminent, how can human beings survive? As the only planet known to exist in the Milky Way, the earth is always "roasted" by the sun.

In five or six billion years, the sun is nearing the "end" of its life, and this "roasting" will become extremely deadly.

The recent blockbuster film "The Wandering Earth 2" unfolds against this backdrop of impending doom. In the film, humans try to find a chance to survive with the help of 10,000 giant planetary engines, quantum computers that understand everything, and towering space elevators.

So, in reality, will the sun eventually deal a fatal blow to the earth? Will the earth decline with the sun? Can planetary engines really push the earth to "wander"? To this end, the Science and Technology Daily reporter interviewed a number of scientific consultants, experts and scholars of "Wandering Earth 2" to interpret the hard core science about "Wandering Earth".

If the sun comes to an end, will the earth be spared?

The sun crisis had just appeared, and humans had joined hands to face it… The future depicted in "The Wandering Earth 2" was cruel but exciting.

The sun, a huge "fireball" about 150 million kilometers from the earth, is the largest celestial body in the solar system. About 4.60 billion years ago, about 26,000 light-years from the center of the Milky Way, the sun was formed by the collapse of a nebula under the influence of its own attractive force.

At present, the sun is in its prime, astronomically known as the main sequence stage, which lasts about 10 billion years. It brings light and energy to the earth, and is an essential factor in the origin of life. But sunspots, flares, and coronal mass ejections also often cause damage to human production and life.

However, the sun will eventually age, and the origin of "The Wandering Earth 2" is the rapid expansion and aging of the sun.

More than 90 per cent of stars in the Milky Way eventually become white dwarfs. At the end of their evolution, they devour nearby planets. As an "ordinary" star, the Sun also ends up as a white dwarf. Does this mean that the planets around the Sun, including the Earth, are destined to be devoured as well?

"If the planet is relatively close to the star, it is very likely to be swallowed by the star," Gou Lijun, a scientific advisor to The Wandering Earth 2 and a researcher at the National Astronomical Observatory of the Chinese Academy of Sciences, told Science and Technology Daily.

However, "being swallowed" is not the only destination for a planet. The sun will eventually experience an outburst of a planetary nebula and become a white dwarf. Around the white dwarf, the original planets may also exist.

With the improvement of human observation methods, astronomers have indeed discovered some planets orbiting white dwarfs around them.

On September 16, 2020, the international authoritative academic journal Nature published an article saying that a team of American scientists had for the first time published evidence of a Jupiter-sized planet orbiting a white dwarf. In addition, in February 2022, British astronomers discovered that a planet may also exist in the "habitable" zone near a white dwarf named WD1054-226, 117 light-years away from Earth.

Can the earth escape and avoid the "solar crisis"?

In 2078, the earth will encounter the "helium flash" crisis of the sun, which is the key to the human decision to "wander" in the movie.

The helium flash is a key link in the evolution of the sun, and it is also the moment of life and death when the earth accepts the sun’s "roast".

"The sun shines because the core of the sun is undergoing a nuclear reaction, where hydrogen is fused to form helium. This process will gradually consume hydrogen, which will then lead to the collapse of the sun’s core. At the same time, the envelope outside the sun’s core expands under high pressure." Chen Pengfei, a professor at the School of Astronomy and Space Sciences at Nanjing University, told reporters. "When the core of the sun, which is mainly composed of helium, gradually contracts, its temperature is also getting higher and higher. When the temperature reaches about 100 million degrees Celsius, the helium will be ignited, and a large amount of helium will complete the fusion reaction in a few minutes. The energy released is huge, and the light emitted will suddenly increase by about 50 times. This process is helium flash."

In more than five billion years, after the sun becomes a red giant, its surface temperature may drop from more than 5,700 degrees Celsius now to about 3,000 degrees Celsius, when the hydrogen in the sun’s core will be exhausted. "Helium flashes usually occur at the end of the evolution of red giants," said Liang Wenjie, a scientific consultant for Wandering Earth 2 and a researcher at the Institute of Physics of the Chinese Academy of Sciences. "In the red giant stage, the sun has expanded to Earth’s orbit, and the surface temperature reaches about 3,000 degrees Celsius, while the melting temperature of the earth’s rocks is below 2,000 degrees Celsius. Therefore, whether it is a temperature change in the red giant stage or a sudden explosion of helium flashes, the earth will melt."

If the survival crisis of the earth is inevitable in more than 5 billion years, can it be avoided in advance during the "expansion period" of the sun, change the orbit and find another place, and return to the original earth orbit after the helium flash and other crises are lifted?

Liang Wenjie believes that even if the solar crisis is lifted and the earth returns to its original orbit, it may not be of much significance to the earth, "because the sun has entered the aging period at that time, and the heat it provides should not be able to support the survival of life on earth. Jupiter, Saturn, Uranus, and Neptune in the solar system are all frozen planets due to their distance from the sun, and the temperature of the planet is minus one or two hundred degrees Celsius. If the earth wants to return to the sun to obtain energy, it will have to constantly correct its orbit and approach the sun, but in the end the’big fireball ‘of the sun will still be’extinguished’."

"Even if it is possible to temporarily’run away from home ‘and then return home, the earth needs to accelerate out of the original orbit and then slow down. The process of adjusting the speed will be very long, and it will consume huge energy on the earth, and the project will be huge. What’s more, the process of returning to the earth’s current orbit and approaching the sun also has risks," Liang Wenjie said.

And if you give up the sun and find other stars, you will also face greater challenges. Gou Lijun believes that if the earth chooses another "habitat" in the universe and chooses a new star to orbit, it means to "adapt" to a new planetary orbit. Then the speed, direction, energy, etc. of entering the orbit need to be accurately measured, and it is difficult for human existing technology to achieve planetary celestial bodies in the short term.

Would nuclear fusion be a better "wandering" solution?

In the film, humans tried to find life at the end of the world through the Mountain Moving Project, the Ark Project, the Monthly Project, and the Digital Life Project. In the end, tens of thousands of giant planetary engines became the hope to push the earth to start a "wandering journey".

Mr. Liang, who has advised on the film’s planetary and lunar engines, the physics of the month-by-month plan and the way the moon explodes, said: "Artistically, the’wandering ‘way of the earth in the film is a great imagination, but it is still difficult to achieve at the current level of science."

Liang Wenjie explained: "The earth itself is not a hard rock, 40-70 kilometers below the earth’s crust is lava, which is a bit similar to the structure of an egg. If you want to drive more than 10,000 engines, and it only takes a hundred years to push the earth to’walk ‘, the engine will put pressure on the earth, which is beyond the earth’s ability to bear, and will break the shell of the’egg’. And if the engine accelerates slowly and gradually reaches maximum power, the earth will be’wandering ‘for a longer time, even thousands of years. During the’wandering’ period, it is difficult to predict what will happen to the earth, what will happen to it, and what human civilization will experience."

"But if you consider the energy supply method, controlled nuclear fusion is worth looking forward to, although it still faces great technical challenges." Liang Wenjie introduced that nuclear fusion is in the case of high temperature, two atomic nuclei collide with each other, and eventually combine to form a new atomic nucleus, which can release huge energy. The key to this is to continuously export the energy produced by nuclear fusion for a long time. To achieve this, many technical problems need to be overcome.

However, even if the nuclear fusion of hydrogen could eventually be realized and provide a large amount of energy for humanity, the important raw materials for nuclear fusion, deuterium and tritium, were in low abundance in the earth’s seawater, and the reserves of helium-3, the raw material for nuclear fusion, were also extremely scarce. Therefore, based on the total amount of resources currently available to humans, the energy of nuclear fusion is still not enough to push the earth out of the solar system.

So, is it possible to "burn stones" like in "The Wandering Earth 2" and obtain energy through heavy nuclear fusion? Liang Wenjie said that heavy nuclear fusion refers to the use of heavier elements such as silicon and oxygen as fusion raw materials to obtain nuclear energy. Compared with light nuclear fusion using deuterium, tritium, and helium-3 as raw materials, heavy nuclear fusion is very inefficient in obtaining fusion energy. Although silicon and oxygen elements have a large proportion in the earth’s crust, in order to overcome the huge electrostatic repulsion between the nuclei of heavy elements and make them produce nuclear fusion reactions, higher temperatures and stronger pressures are required, and the reaction temperature even needs to reach billions of degrees Celsius, which greatly challenges the current scientific and technological capabilities of mankind.

extended reading

Are there wandering planets in the universe?

If one day, the earth had to embark on a "wandering" journey, would it be possible to encounter celestial bodies that "sympathize with each other" in the vast universe?

According to Gou Lijun, a scientific advisor of "Wandering Earth 2" and a researcher at the National Astronomical Observatory of the Chinese Academy of Sciences, there is a type of planet that does not orbit any star in the universe, namely the wandering planet. At present, humans have detected about 100 wandering planets, the larger ones are about ten times the size of Jupiter, and the smaller ones are close to the earth.

"According to the current understanding, there may be two ways for stray planets to form: one is that when they form, only the planets themselves. Another possibility is that the planet is’ejected ‘from the star system." For example, if a larger star is near the solar system, it is possible that under the action of attractive forces, the outermost planet of the solar system may deviate from its original orbit and eventually leave the solar system.

Liang Wenjie, a science adviser for "The Wandering Earth 2" and a researcher at the Institute of Physics of the Chinese Academy of Sciences, offered another hypothesis: Large stars experience a violent explosion at the end of their evolution, a supernova explosion, and eject a large amount of interstellar material. "Planets near the star may be ejected from their original orbits at this time and become wandering planets."

In recent years, with the improvement of observation technology, stray planets have been continuously discovered by humans. In August 2018, American scientists confirmed that a planet about 12 times the mass of Jupiter was wandering alone about 20 light-years away from the earth and was not attached to any star. It was the first stray planet discovered by radio telescopes.

In 2020, American and Polish astronomers wrote in the Astrophysical Journal Letters that they might have discovered the smallest known rogue planet, with a microscopic attractive force lens, that "weighs" about 10 percent of Earth.

"Wandering planets do not emit light, so it is difficult to detect them. They are often discovered due to an accidental event, so they are paid attention to by the detector for a very short time, which also leads to the current research on wandering planets is very limited." According to Gou Lijun, according to the current level of human technology, it is impossible to determine whether there is life on wandering planets.

Liang Wenjie analyzed that in addition to the elements that make up life, such as amino acids, carbon, hydrogen and other substances, the existence of life also requires a suitable temperature. "The evolution of the universe sometimes ejects some organic matter onto the star, and the survival of organic matter requires a suitable temperature. Wandering planets do not heat up, and there are no stars to provide heat for them, so they will continue to cool down until they reach the lowest temperature in the universe. Such low temperatures are difficult to breed life," Liang Wenjie said.

Source: Science and Technology Daily


Editor in charge: Feng Zheng

Stars who "perform" in the live broadcast room

Author | Uncle Cat

It’s hard to imagine that the live broadcast of goods that the big coffee was ashamed of two years ago has now become a common practice in the entertainment industry.

Especially in 2021, the stars who stayed in the live broadcast circle became more and more bottomless.

The star’s job was originally acting, but now the main battlefield of many stars is no longer movies and TV series, but has become a live broadcast room with goods.

Moreover, the "cannibalism" of stars with goods is sometimes uglier than that of online celebrity.

The stars performed in the live broadcast room

On November 27th, a well-known actress surnamed Huang was in the live broadcast room, holding a Hetian jade necklace with a price of 1,280 yuan and sincerely shouting: "299 yuan."

The merchant was incoherent with anger: "Do you know what this is? This is Hotan Jasper, and this is the ceiling in nephrite! This is Russia’s No.7 mine, and No.7 mine was extinct in 2008 … "

The actress surnamed Huang didn’t speak, but slowly touched the jade pendant of the necklace. The merchant quickly said, "If you really want to sell 299 yuan, I really can’t put the bill. Well, I can only put 300 bills at most."

Actress surnamed Huang: "Then I think you should be cheaper."

The actress surnamed Huang responded with a hundred words, and the netizens in the live broadcast shouted for the price. The actress surnamed Huang looked at the screen and said with enthusiasm: "Did someone say 199 yuan? I think some people say 118 yuan, ok, just 118 yuan! "

Embarrassed, at this time, no one on the screen shouted for 199 and 118, but 9.9 yuan, 29 yuan and 99 yuan.

Finally, this necklace is priced at 118 yuan, and it is also bought for one get one free. After it is put on the shelves, it is not limited to 300 orders, but you can buy it at will.

Obviously, this is a good play starring actress Huang and merchants. The so-called asking netizens to bid is just a process atmosphere.

The price reduction from 1280 yuan to 118 yuan is really arbitrary. Merchants are shouting limited, loss-making, and subsidies. In fact, they are all fooling netizens to place orders.

In fact, there are more and more stars who "perform" in the live broadcast room like actress Huang.

Live broadcast with goods has become a mirror for all kinds of demons.Originally a paradise for online celebrity anchors, it has now been seized by major stars.

Even Pan Changjiang, a venerable elder, stepped into the muddy water of live broadcast with goods after staged a slapstick farce of "the turn of the Pan Ga", which was repeatedly questioned, but it was out of control, and was complained by netizens that his last days were in jeopardy.

Even more embarras,Those "routines" with goods, which have long been played badly by online celebrity people, are now grounded and learned by the stars.

This has also led to the fact that although the stars "performed" very hard in the live broadcast room, the effect is getting worse and worse, the audience is getting worse and worse, and the effect of bringing goods is getting worse every day.

The "script with goods" is the same, which is a great test of star acting.

The biggest problem that makes people embarrassed is that most stars’ "scripts with goods" are the same.

Netscape Internet (ID: WXS360) found that,Among them, there are two scripts with goods, which are repeated by stars in the live broadcast room.Because of too many performances, it is a great test for actors’ acting skills.

1. Performance quarrels with merchants

The flow of this script is:

1) The first scene: the merchant quotes, the anchor is not satisfied, and bargains on the spot;

2) The second act: the merchant sells badly, tells the selling point of the product and refuses to reduce the price;

3) Act III: The anchor gets angry, loses his mind, directly releases the fracture price, and says that he subsidizes the fans;

4) The merchants were forced to meet the anchor conditions and promised limited supply;

4) Ending: The anchor called on fans to place orders quickly.

The script with goods has been performed by countless online celebrity for many times, and it is still imitated by many stars. How many netizens into the pit can be fooled now, which not only tests the anchor’s acting skills and cooperation with the merchants, but also needs to be followed up in a more intense and bottomless way.

Although we all know that the anchor and the merchant signed a contract long before the cooperation, it is impossible not to talk about the price of the goods. However, in the process of quarreling and bargaining, the actors still have to be full of emotions, and the performance should be true and full of tension, bringing a strong sense of substitution and impact to netizens.

2. Pretend to mark the wrong price.

Nowadays, there are goods in the live broadcast room, and the frequency of wrong price is getting higher and higher. So that netizens ridiculed that there is no star who missed the price, and it is not a good star with goods.

The routine of "marking the wrong price" is most used by female stars when they bring goods, and some even mark the wrong price several times in a live broadcast.

The success of "marking the wrong price" mainly depends on the "performance" after the anchor marked the wrong price.Successful "acting skills" usually shout "The price is wrong, the price is wrong, so don’t place an order, I’m going to pay for it …", while acting in a hurry and at a loss.

At this time, the more the anchor is at a loss, the harder netizens place orders, and the IQ tax will be quiet.

Under such circumstances, acting-style live broadcast, script-style selling of goods and other means of curiosity and speculation are flooding the live broadcast rooms of various anchors, including scripts and words, and even the commodity pricing and price reduction are strikingly similar.

When Tik Tok and Aauto Quicker were opened, all the live broadcast rooms became show shows with goods, and the anchors were performing hard and repeatedly under the same script.

The live broadcast bonus disappears, and the industry urgently needs a "new script" 

In 2020, the first year of star live broadcast was ushered in with the help of the epidemic. Tamia Liu, Michael Chen, Yuqi Zhang, Stephy, Li Xiang, Wang Han, Eva Huang, Ye Yixi, Yang Kun, Li Xiaolu, Xue Zhiqian … Many young stars have tried live water to bring goods, and sales of hundreds of millions have become routine operations.

In a year, the live broadcast bonus disappeared. The sales myth of stars, accompanied by constant controversy, overturned several times.

9.9 yuan, a live studio in Jordan chan, sold a gold bar and an autographed photo. As a result, the fans received a golden plastic piece, and the autograph was only printed matter.

Pan Changjiang, Wang Xiaoli, and Xie Mengwei (Gazi) have all sold branded wine with the name of Maotai Town in the live broadcast room. This kind of wine can’t be said to be fake wine, but the name of "Maotai Town" and "Xinghua Village" is somewhat suspected of fooling consumers.

In fact, more and more stars have "killed" into the wine, jewelry and jewelry industries because of the high profits and the inability to uniformly estimate their values. Similar rollover incidents are not uncommon.

Some stars gradually fade out of the live broadcast circle, while some stars do not care about their feathers and the trust of fans in the live broadcast room, and frequently consume the popularity and word of mouth saved by their own entertainment circles.

In the Tucao Conference, Viya made a slightly sarcastic speech:"When the stars have what good, you see these stars, not to live? The destination of stars is to bring goods. "

Hao Lei also said that the live broadcast diverted the stars in the film and television circle. "Thank you very much for the live broadcast. Some people don’t have to go around this detour and must be actors."

At present, the main positions of the first-line strength stars who are getting along well in the film and television circle are still film and television dramas, and they rarely set foot in live broadcasts, such as Bo Huang, Jason Wu, Chen Sicheng, Shen Teng, Ge You and Chen Daoming. Most of the people who have been in the live broadcast circle for a long time are traffic stars, female stars and outdated stars.

An interesting phenomenon is that,If you can’t pick a good script in the film and television circle, it is difficult to pick a good script in the live broadcast circle, and even you can only repeat the bad script.

Even if it is a live broadcast, most stars have no originality and recognition ability. Online celebrity, the head of the company, is still developing a new script, and most of the stars have just embarked on the "homogenization" routine under the planning of the merchants. But when the "scripts" become more and more similar and the hype routine becomes more and more obvious, how long can the audience’s freshness be maintained? How long can the platform tolerate?

There is nothing wrong with the live broadcast, and it is understandable to have a script routine, but the script should also be innovative with the times, and the live broadcast should be more sincere and less deceptive.


Ministry of Housing and Urban-Rural Development: Meet the reasonable financing needs of real estate enterprises with different ownership equally.

According to China real estate newspaper WeChat official account, on the morning of January 26th, the Ministry of Housing and Urban-Rural Development held a meeting to deploy the coordination mechanism of urban real estate financing. Ni Hong, Party Secretary and Minister of the Ministry of Housing and Urban-Rural Development of the People’s Rerublic of China attended the meeting and stressed that the spirit of the Central Economic Work Conference should be thoroughly implemented, the coordination mechanism of urban real estate financing should be accelerated to be effective, the development and construction of real estate projects should be supported, the reasonable financing needs of real estate enterprises with different ownership systems should be met equally, and the stable and healthy development of the real estate market should be promoted.

The meeting also requested that we should adapt to the new situation in which the relationship between supply and demand in the real estate market has undergone major changes, speed up the construction of a new model of real estate development, combine the long and short, treat both the symptoms and the root causes, and promote the stable and healthy development of the real estate market. It is necessary to adhere to the policy of the city, precise policy, one city and one policy, make good use of the policy toolbox, and fully give urban real estate regulation and control autonomy. Cities can adjust their real estate policies according to local conditions.

Editor in charge: Chen Haiqin