This "America first", everyone is watching a joke.

Only nine months after taking office, Kevin McCarthy, the third person in the United States and Speaker of the House of Representatives, was removed from office on October 3. CNN said that this is the first time in American history that the Speaker of the House of Representatives was voted out.

Not only did he create history when he left office, but McCarthy also staged an embarrassing farce of "once in a hundred years" when he took office at the beginning of this year-after four days and 15 rounds of voting, he barely became the speaker, which was the longest voting in the House of Representatives election for more than 160 years since the Civil War.

Unexpectedly, McCarthy was kicked off the speaker’s position before his ass got hot after he got to the top.

According to Lv Xiang, an expert on American issues at China Academy of Social Sciences, McCarthy’s dismissal was expected. In the initial campaign tug-of-war, McCarthy agreed to lower the threshold of the "recall motion" in order to win the votes of ultra-conservatives in the party, which in itself laid the groundwork for his stepping down. "The end has long been doomed, but I was not sure when this day would come."

Feeling of being dismissed"great"

Judging from the voting results of the recall motion, there were 216 votes in favor and 210 votes against it. In the House of Representatives, which has a majority of Republican seats, McCarthy obviously lost some of his party support votes, that is, some Republican lawmakers "defected" and voted in favor of the recall of McCarthy together with Democratic lawmakers.

·The picture of the US House of Representatives voting on the resolution to recall Republican Speaker McCarthy.

Why was McCarthy "abandoned" by the Republican Party? The direct cause is the parliamentary dispute over the appropriation bill.

The fiscal year 2023 in the United States ended on September 30, and the Democratic Party and the Republican Party had been fighting endlessly over the federal budget appropriation bill for the new fiscal year. Just at the last moment when the government was on the verge of running out of money and preparing to close the door, the short-term appropriation bill was passed on the evening of September 30, local time, temporarily avoiding the crisis of the US federal government’s lockout again.

In fact, the Republican Party originally wanted to give the Democratic US President Biden a "color" look through the appropriation bill.

Ultra-conservatives in the Republican Party have been pressuring McCarthy not to support any provisional appropriation bill, and even threatened to let McCarthy step down once the provisional appropriation bill was passed.

As a result, the Republicans designed it for a long time, and McCarthy broke the chain at the last minute and compromised with the Democratic Party, so that the appropriation bill was passed.

The appropriation bill was passed, and McCarthy was regarded as "meritorious" on the Democratic side, but it also angered the Republican Party and became the fuse for his dismissal.

After being dismissed, McCarthy held a press conference and said that he felt "great" and that he would not run for the Speaker again.

Some media analysts said that McCarthy’s abandonment of re-election is actually saving face. Although he can run for election again immediately according to the law, since he was elected as the speaker after a full 15 rounds of voting last time, it will definitely not be easy if he runs for election again.

·This is McCarthy, Speaker of the House of Representatives of the Republican Party, filmed in Washington, DC on September 29th. Xinhua news agency

During his nine months as Speaker of the House of Representatives, McCarthy was repeatedly challenged by ultra-conservatives in the Republican Party.

Earlier this year, the United States almost defaulted on its debt. McCarthy and Biden reached a compromise in May, and Congress passed a bill on the government debt ceiling. At that time, the ultra-conservatives in the Republican Party thought that McCarthy had not pushed hard enough to cut government spending, and once considered proposing a motion to remove McCarthy.

It’s not that McCarthy hasn’t thought about "saving himself". In September this year, on the issue of impeaching Biden, McCarthy handed out an "olive branch" to the radicals in the Republican Party.

On September 12, McCarthy said in Congress that the investigation of Biden’s family members by the House Oversight and Accountability Committee found that Biden’s family had a "culture of corruption" and there might be "abuse of power, obstruction of justice and corruption", so "I announced today that the House Committee will formally launch an impeachment investigation against President Biden".

According to US media reports, McCarthy announced an impeachment investigation against Biden, to some extent to meet the requirements of the far-right conservatives in the Republican Party in the House of Representatives. Some conservative Republican lawmakers said that the impeachment investigation against Biden was only a "small step" and "we should speed up the pace of action". If McCarthy moves slowly, measures may be taken to "step down".

McCarthy, who was threatened to "step down" without a word, was completely caught.

"An actor with poor acting skills"

We can "unite" Republicans by impeaching Biden, or compromise with Democrats for the benefit. It is precisely because of this characteristic of have it both ways that McCarthy is described by the American media as "the best congressional chameleon".

"McCarthy is a typical opportunist. Generally speaking, he is a Republican, but staunch Republicans don’t trust him. " Lu Xiang said that after McCarthy took office, he tried to get support from many parties, but the Republican party could not understand it. He would also play the idea of the Democratic Party and do something to please it. But in the end, McCarthy, who used to be a "fence-sitter" and "fence-sitter", only ended up being dismissed.

In the American political arena where money is paramount, McCarthy’s history can be described as "another way". He can sit in the "third place" with "excellent interpersonal skills".

In 1965, McCarthy was born into an ordinary family in California. His father was a fireman and his grandfather owned a small ranch. As an adult, McCarthy worked as a worker and opened a sandwich shop. In 1987, 22-year-old McCarthy sold the store and used the money to study at California State University.

During his college years, McCarthy met the "Bole" who changed his fate, then Republican Congressman Bill Thomas. McCarthy followed Thomas into the Republican Party and grew from an intern to a long-term congressman around Thomas.

In 2002, 37-year-old McCarthy was elected to the California House of Representatives. In 2007, he entered the Congress to take over the position of Representative Thomas, and inherited his political legacy.

·McCarthy.

Since he entered Congress, McCarthy has aimed at the throne of the Speaker of the House of Representatives. He brought his "interpersonal skills" into full play.

For example, McCarthy can name all members’ families and even know the birthdays of members’ children. He often appears in non-work places such as the National Assembly Gym, creating opportunities to "bump into" colleagues and talk with them. He can always say the right words at the right time to make the other person feel happy.

However, McCarthy, although he got along well in Congress, was not loved. An insider working in the House of Representatives once said to the American media: Everyone knows this sentence-McCarthy really cares only about himself.

In 2013, the American drama "House of Cards" started shooting, and kevinspacey fowler, the leading actor, found McCarthy to learn from the scriptures. McCarthy later admitted that he had taken Spacey to "experience life" in Congress. Spacey concluded: "The politicians on Capitol Hill are all bad actors."

·Stills of House of Cards.

A "failed country"

This time, it was Matt Gates, a Republican Congressman from Florida, who proposed to recall McCarthy.

Gates has a long history of not liking McCarthy.

In January this year, when McCarthy sprinted for the position of Speaker, Gates was the biggest obstacle.

After the mid-term elections, the Republican Party won 222 seats and successfully controlled the House of Representatives. As the Republican leader of the House of Representatives, McCarthy should have no suspense in taking over as Speaker of the House of Representatives.

However, the original "going through the motions" vote was deadlocked for four days, and McCarthy did not become the speaker until the fifteenth round of voting.

·McCarthy was still not elected after the eleventh round of voting.

In the fourteenth round of voting, at the critical moment when McCarthy was only one vote away from being elected, Gates once again cast an abstention vote.

Seeing Gates "spoiling the game", McCarthy turned pale with anger and got up and went to him to persuade him to change his position. But gates didn’t give in at all, and he held out his finger and choked with McCarthy.

·On January 6, 2023, on the fourth day of the election of the Speaker of the House of Representatives, McCarthy and Gates quarreled.

In the end, McCarthy was barely elected by one vote, which was behind the compromise he made by abandoning his dignity. One of the compromises is that McCarthy agreed to lower the threshold for initiating a motion to recall the Speaker of the House of Representatives-any member of the House of Representatives can propose it, instead of the previous requirement of obtaining the support of a majority of members of one party.

These compromises were called "the devil’s deal" by the Washington Post. Democratic Rep. McGovern sarcastically said: "McCarthy has given up everything, including dignity."

Wearing shackles, McCarthy became the speaker. I just didn’t expect that the speaker who was elected after 15 rounds of voting was dismissed after one round of voting.

It is worth mentioning that Gates, who constantly advocates putting "shackles" on McCarthy, comes from the far-right liberal party group.

This is a group composed of far-right Republican lawmakers who advocate conservatism and small government, and support budget cuts and decentralization of the House of Representatives. Of the 20 Republican lawmakers who opposed McCarthy’s election as Speaker, 19 were closely related to the Liberal Party. Of the eight Republicans who voted to remove McCarthy, six were members of the Liberal Party.

The number of liberal party members is not large, but the victory lies in unity. If more than 80% of the internal members are against a proposal, others will choose to follow the ticket.

·Before McCarthy took office on January 7th this year, Matt Gates made a speech against McCarthy on January 6th local time.

Lu Xiang believes that the Liberal Party actually inherited the "mantle" of the Tea Party.

Previously, a landmark event of Republican infighting occurred in 2015. At that time, the Tea Party forced john boehner, Speaker of the House of Representatives and a Republican, to resign, and the situation was exactly the same as this one.

"The liberal party group is like a small group in the majority party, and it can also be understood as a small shareholder in a large company, and it is a decisive minority shareholder." Lu Xiang believes that the small party groups differentiated within the majority party can achieve the role of "the majority obeys the minority"-although you can’t do anything big, you can’t do anything.

It is difficult for the two parties to cooperate with each other, the internal struggles among political parties continue, and minority groups hold the decision-making power … The American media described the Republicans in the House of Representatives as a "failed country".

Before the new speaker took office, McCarthy temporarily appointed his confidant Patrick McHenry as the interim speaker. The BBC believes that whoever succeeds McCarthy will face a broken mess.

How to deal with the mess for the time being, mchenry’s new official took office, and issued a written order, demanding that former US House Speaker nancy pelosi vacate the office of the Capitol immediately, and that the office should return to the right path, "for the use of the Speaker only".

Editor-in-Chief: Qin Hong

Text Editor: Fang Ying

Author: global person Chen Jiali Mao Yufei

Source: vision china

Photo editor: Xu Jiamin

Heavy! There will be these changes in the examination of expanding the recruitment scale of civil servants in many provinces.

  BEIJING, Beijing, June 12 (Reporter Qi Feng) Recently, many provinces intensively launched the recruitment of civil servants in 2020. Compared with last year, the recruitment scale of many provinces has increased, and some regions have also set aside some positions specifically for college graduates. In addition, various localities also put forward targeted measures for epidemic prevention and control during the examination to ensure the smooth examination and the health of candidates.

  Data map: A civil servant test center, candidates lined up to enter the examination room. Photo by Wu Junjie

  The enrollment of civil servants in many provinces is close to 400%

  Recently, a number of provinces have intensively released the 2020 civil service recruitment announcement. Compared with previous years, the scale of civil service recruitment in various places has increased significantly.

  On June 9, the Civil Service Bureau of Inner Mongolia Autonomous Region issued the general rules for the recruitment of civil servants (public employees) in the 2020 examination for party and government organs (public participation units). Inner Mongolia plans to recruit a total of 7,270 civil servants (public employees) this time, which is close to 400% compared with 1,471 in the previous year.

  In addition to Inner Mongolia, Shandong, which started the recruitment of civil servants in April this year, plans to recruit 7,360 people, an increase of more than 140% compared with the recruitment scale of 3,047 people last year. Fujian plans to recruit 3,724 civil servants this year, an increase of more than 50% compared with 2,471 last year. Henan plans to recruit 9,837 people this year, an increase of over 30% compared with 7,478 people last year.

  In addition, Hubei Province, which has not officially started the recruitment of civil servants, has previously made it clear that the recruitment plan for civil servants will increase by 20% in 2020 and that for Selected Graduates will increase by 50%.

  "Due to the reform of local institutions, many provinces reduced the recruitment scale of civil servants last year, which is this year ‘ Enrollment expansion ’ The premise background. " Zhang Xiaolong, an expert in chalk education public examination, analyzed that the staffing plan of civil servants has remained stable as a whole. This year, the recruitment scale of some provinces has been expanded, largely due to the resumption of the recruitment plan previously affected by institutional reform, and the normal personnel replenishment has been realized.

  In addition, Zhang Xiaolong said that this year, affected by the epidemic, grass-roots public service departments in some areas need to appropriately strengthen their strength and enrich their personnel, which is also one of the factors of enrollment expansion.

  Data Map Photo by Huang Weiming

  With the expansion of civil servants, are there more opportunities for fresh graduates?

  In the annual civil service recruitment examination, fresh graduates are an important part of the army. This year, the number of college graduates reached 8.74 million, a record high. Then, under the background of the expansion of civil servants in many places, is the probability of fresh graduates becoming public higher?

  Judging from the recruitment policies of various places, some areas have released the signal of leaning towards fresh graduates in the recruitment of civil servants.

  For example, the "Several Measures for Further Promoting the Employment of College Graduates in 2020 in Tianjin" recently issued by Tianjin Municipal Bureau of Human Resources and Social Security clearly stipulates that the number of positions for recent college graduates in the recruitment of civil servants should be increased, and civil servants should be recruited by organs below the district level, except for targeted and special demand positions. In principle, they are all for recent college graduates.

  In Shandong, this year, in the recruitment of Shandong civil servants, 1,021 positions were taken out for the first time, specifically for college graduates. Wang Zhimin, director of the Second Division of Civil Servants of the Organization Department of Shandong Provincial Party Committee, told the media that in addition to these positions, there are 90% positions that fresh graduates can also apply for.

  In view of expanding the recruitment of civil servants in many places, Wang Yukai, a professor at the Central Party School (National School of Administration), analyzed that for this year’s large-scale college graduates, the expansion of civil servants will undoubtedly provide them with more opportunities, and encouraging college graduates to join the grassroots line to make contributions is also an important accumulation and experience for their future growth and development.

  "Every year, a certain proportion of positions will be reserved for fresh graduates, and this year’s proportion may increase slightly." Zhang Xiaolong said that compared with the recruitment of civil servants, the local government will be more inclined to the fresh graduates in the recruitment of institutions and teachers.

  Zhang Xiaolong said, from the analysis of the recruitment plans released in various places at present, the overall proportion of fresh graduates and previous graduates in this year’s recruitment requirements will be the same as in previous years.

  However, experts also said that enrollment expansion is undoubtedly a good news for both fresh graduates and previous graduates. "From the current registration situation in some provinces, compared with last year’s reduction, everyone’s ‘ Chenggong ’ The probability will be improved a lot. " Zhang Xiaolong said.

  Data map. Photo by Zhang Bin

  The exam time has been postponed. Is there a "joint exam" this year?

  The recruitment of civil servants organized by provinces has also become a "provincial examination". In recent years, most provinces have concentrated the provincial examination on the written examination in April every year. In recent years, more than 20 provinces have held civil service examinations together, which is also called the "joint examination".

  This year, affected by the epidemic, the recruitment time of civil servants in many places was delayed, and the written test time was relatively scattered.

  Judging from the provinces that have announced the written examination time for provincial examinations, Fujian and Sichuan will arrange the written examination for public subjects on July 25th, Yunnan and Hunan on August 22nd, while Inner Mongolia has made it clear that the written examination for posts in the public security system will be held on July 25th and 26th, and the written examination for posts outside the public security system will be held on August 22nd.

  "Due to the different situations faced by epidemic prevention and control in different places, the written examinations of provincial examinations in different places may not be concentrated on a large scale this year, and there may be two small-scale joint examinations on July 25 and August 22, respectively." Zhang Xiaolong analyzed that the civil service examination requires higher quality of the proposition, and some provinces will still take the joint examination of unified proposition.

  Observing this year’s provincial examination policy for civil servants, all localities have made arrangements for the epidemic prevention and control of the public examination itself. For example, some areas require wearing masks, showing health codes, and some must provide nucleic acid test results.

  It is worth mentioning that Shandong and Zhejiang have clearly reduced the written examination of public subjects to half a day. Shandong also specifically stated that it is necessary to adopt a method of testing admission and seamlessly connecting exams to minimize the gathering of people.

  Zhang Xiaolong reminded that candidates must pay attention to the epidemic prevention requirements of all localities in the provincial examination in special years, and do a good job of self-health management in advance. In addition, they should adjust their work and rest rules in time and make good preparations for the examination.

  "For example, if the" Line Test "and" Shen Lun "are placed in a half-day exam, the intensity of the exam will increase sharply. Candidates need to adjust their biological clocks in advance and adjust their best test status to the test time."

It’s not the most exaggerated that the official of the women’s hall embezzled 364 million public funds for stock trading, causing hundreds of millions of losses to the country.

  CCTV News:Recently, the First Branch of Tianjin Municipal People’s Procuratorate published the indictment of Ma Baiyu (female), the former deputy director of Tianjin Water Affairs Bureau, on the case information disclosure network of the People’s Procuratorate. The procuratorate found that Ma Baiyu exceeded his authority in his work and illegally used state-owned funds to speculate on the stocks of listed companies, causing economic losses of 315 million yuan to the country.

  According to the indictment, from October 2000 to December 2001, Ma Baiyu invested 364 million yuan of state-owned funds in the securities market in the name of maintaining the stock price of the entrepreneurial environmental protection company, speculating on the stock of the entrepreneurial environmental protection company.

  Ma Baiyu, former deputy director of Tianjin Water Affairs Bureau (data map)

  Since then, in order to cover up the fact of using state-owned funds to speculate on stocks, Ma Baiyu signed a false asset management contract with a securities company in Beijing, and used the transfer of funds between accounts as a means to level the corporate accounts of the municipal investment company of 364 million yuan to related companies.

  After the investment failed, Ma Baiyu recovered two stock account deposit refunds in the name of the municipal investment company and included the short-term investment loss of about 339 million yuan in the current profit and loss, all of which were written off. During the period of stock trading, Ma Baiyu also embezzled about 10.18 million yuan of stock trading funds.

  In addition, Ma Baiyu was also accused of taking advantage of his position to illegally embezzle public funds with her husband Jia Sujin and her son Jia Fei by means of eating empty money, reimbursing air tickets, accommodation fees and telephone charges. Arrange the son and daughter-in-law to work in their municipal investment company and eat empty salary for a long time; Illegally accepting other people’s money, commercial houses, jade bracelets, jade rings, jade brooches, watches, gold bars and other items and decoration expenses, totaling 3.042 million yuan, 2.48 million Hong Kong dollars, 75,000 US dollars, 45,000 euros and 21,000 pounds.

  In the end, Ma Baiyu was sentenced to 18 years in prison for alleged abuse of power, dereliction of duty, corruption, bribery and misappropriation of public funds.

  The country’s moths have been found out, which is very gratifying.

  The "Several Guidelines on Political Life within the Party under the New Situation" explicitly prohibits: it is forbidden to use power to seek personal gain for oneself and others, it is forbidden to approve money, materials and projects in violation of the financial system, it is forbidden to occupy and squander state and collective property under various pretexts or pretexts, and it is forbidden to raise the standard of cadres’ treatment in violation of regulations.

  However, some cadres did not listen to dissuasion and took up leadership positions, but they could not adhere to honesty and integrity, and forgot their post responsibilities for their own personal gain. Like Ma Baiyu, they attempted to make profits through illegal means. Most of these cadres have high academic qualifications and high IQ, but they can’t resist the temporary sugar-coated shells after years of hard work, which eventually infringes on the interests of the country and the people.

 

  Tao Liming, former president of China Postal Savings Bank (data map)

  Tao Liming, the former president of China Postal Savings Bank, conspired with others to maliciously overpay hundreds of millions of treasury bonds for many times, misappropriating about 340 million yuan of treasury bonds for stock trading, investment and wealth management for personal profit.

  This "star president" with a rare academic background among state-owned enterprise executives, from humble passbook printing and advertising business to building decoration and software cooperation, never misses any opportunity to "steal oil". He regarded the over-issued treasury bonds subscribed by investors as "private property" for profit, and his modus operandi was so professional that he was not discovered for many years after misappropriation.

  In order to fill the hole in its investment losses, Tao Liming or his associates also misappropriated other state-owned assets and charged various "benefits". The scale of loan funds involved in some corrupt acts even reached tens of billions of yuan. From October 29th to November 3rd, 2014, the court heard Tao Liming’s case of suspected bribery and misappropriation of public funds in public, and he pleaded guilty in court. The court announced that the case would be pronounced at an alternative date. In June 2016, Tao Liming died of a heart attack at the detention center at the age of 62.

  Fang Hua, former director of the Land and Resources Bureau of Liupanshui City, Guizhou Province, is even more exaggerated. For his wife Yan Yan’s stock trading, he joined several people to illegally absorb more than 100 million yuan of private capital on the grounds of doing engineering and starting a company with high interest rates. Finally, he was sentenced to 14 years in prison for the crime of illegally absorbing public deposits and accepting bribes.

  Looking at these fallen officials in the field of stock finance, they think they have found an unknown trick of "making money", but they don’t know that officialdom is not a business field, power is not a bargaining chip, and principles cannot be traded.

  Such cadres must not be tolerated.

  The report of the 19th National Congress of the Communist Party of China calls for strict implementation of certain norms of inner-party political life under the new situation, enhancing the political nature, times, principles and combativeness of inner-party political life, consciously resisting the erosion of the principle of commodity exchange on inner-party life, and creating a good political ecology with a clean atmosphere.

  Chen Shulong, the former vice governor of Anhui Province, repented in the anti-corruption feature film "Patrol Sword": "If you are an official, don’t get rich. If you get rich, don’t be an official. If you are in politics, you should be in politics well, and if you are in business, you should be in business well. Otherwise, it must be like me, and I regret it. "

  Building a clean and honest party style and fighting against corruption are always on the road. Don’t be like Chen Shulong, who didn’t understand the truth that "you can’t have your cake and eat it" until you were ruined. (Text/Ren Jia)

Power rent-seeking is getting worse, and the real estate industry has become the hardest hit by collusion between officials and businessmen.

  Editor’s Note: Today’s real estate industry in China is the hardest hit by collusion between officials and businessmen. Jiang Renjie, the former vice mayor of Suzhou, took bribes of more than 100 million yuan, mainly from real estate developers. Recently, it is far more than this one who has been pulled down by developers: Zhu Zhigang, the former vice minister of finance, was "double-regulated" and helped his relatives buy low-priced houses, involving many people in the real estate industry in Beijing; Liu Zhihua, the former vice mayor of Beijing, was sentenced to death with a suspended sentence for taking bribes of nearly 7 million yuan. He accepted a lot of bribes from real estate developers … The arms of corrupt officials "warmed" real estate developers, and the wealthy real estate developers "fed back" individual officials again and again. The essence behind this "mutual benefit" is only two words: power and benefit.


  There are deep roots behind the fact that officials are willing to do anything for developers at the risk of guillotine.


  Why are individual officials keen to be "friends" with developers? Why is the problem of illegal land getting worse and worse? In fact, as long as there is soil or space for power rent-seeking, corruption will grow like weeds cut one after another, which has been clearly verified in the real estate market. Originally, there was a "symbiosis" phenomenon between developers and urban construction officials. Developers were both "performance promoters" of individual urban construction officials and "troublemakers" who induced corruption. When the two sides share the same rotten tastes, they often form an "interest alliance", and land development has thus become a high-risk area for corruption. There are deep roots behind the fact that individual officials are willing to do anything for developers at the risk of going to the guillotine.


  The government plays a dual role; The hierarchical administrative structure makes the power lack of restraint.


  To a certain extent, the government plays a dual role. On the one hand, the government, as the representative of public interests, formulates policies, regulates economic activities and acts as a referee. The government has the power to examine and approve infrastructure, industry, real estate and other projects. The construction of these projects requires land. Some unscrupulous developers want to obtain low-priced land and rent from individual government officials who can’t resist the temptation.


  On the other hand, the government has a huge amount of resources and directly participates in economic activities as a subject and acts as an athlete. All local governments shoulder the heavy responsibility of developing local economy. In the performance evaluation of local government officials, GDP is the most critical indicator, which intensifies their impulse to manage land. Because they can only use land to attract investment, set up industrial parks and carry out infrastructure construction. In these activities, the pricing power of land resources is in the hands of relevant officials. Even the public bidding and auction of land can not completely overcome the transfer of interests. The direct investment attraction of individual local party and government departments is more likely to aggravate the difficulty of curbing land violations and corruption.


  In addition, the hierarchical administrative structure makes the top leaders of local governments and the direct leaders in charge of land have too much power and lack of supervision and checks and balances. China’s land authorities are land departments at all levels, but the land department is a subordinate department of the government. The director of land and resources should be led by the deputy mayor in charge, and the deputy mayor in charge should be led by the mayor and the secretary. If the deputy mayor, mayor and secretary in charge directly grant land or intervene in land transactions, it will be difficult for the land department to effectively restrain them, and the discipline inspection and supervision departments will also encounter difficulties and resistance when investigating. High-ranking officials who are dismissed because of land corruption are basically deputy mayors and district heads in charge of land, urban construction or major construction projects. Unrestricted power naturally leads to corruption.


  The relevant laws do not strictly define the public interest.


  On the one hand, the constitution stipulates that urban land belongs to the state and rural land belongs to farmers’ collectives, which means that all the new land needs of urbanization and industrialization, whether the needs of public interests or non-public interests, must be met through the state’s land acquisition behavior (that is, transforming rural collectively owned land into state-owned land); On the other hand, the constitution also emphasizes that the state can only expropriate or requisition agricultural land for the needs of public interests.


  It is precisely because the relevant laws do not strictly define the public interest, and the government must expropriate farmers’ land for non-public welfare needs such as economic development and urban construction. Although many land expropriation acts of individual local governments are illegal, the judicial department usually refuses to accept most legal proceedings caused by illegal land expropriation by the government, which to some extent opens the door for land corruption of individual local government officials.


  Except for a few stocks of state-owned land, all new urban construction land must be acquired through land acquisition, and the main body of land acquisition is only the government. The circulation of village collective land is strictly restricted to agricultural use, so the government has mastered the supply of construction land. In the case of rising demand, developers understand that only by "fixing" government officials can they obtain land at a lower cost. This is why some government officials "wave upon wave" fall on land violations. Monopoly of land supply has created institutional space for individual corrupt officials to use land for illegal interests.


  Under the tax-sharing system, local governments are constantly looking for income from outside the budget, and land lease income is not included in the financial budget management.


  After the implementation of the tax-sharing system in 1994, the central government quickly took the leading position, and its concentration capacity became stronger and stronger, and its concentration ratio became higher and higher, accounting for about 55% of the total tax revenue. The central government is rich in money and the local government is poor in money, but the pattern of division of powers between the central and local governments has not changed much. Local governments use about 45% of their relative fiscal revenue to support about 75% of their relative expenditure responsibilities. This induces local governments to constantly look for sources of income from outside the budget. When local governments found that land was an important way to make money, they began to sell land to raise financial revenue for themselves.


  The tax classification of the tax-sharing system also gives local governments an incentive to develop the real estate industry and constantly push up housing prices. According to the tax-sharing arrangement, urban land use tax, property tax, stamp duty, land value-added tax, paid use income of state-owned land and other taxes are collected by local governments. Therefore, the more active the real estate market is, the more this part of tax revenue will be. This has stimulated the impulse of local governments to develop the real estate industry and collected a large number of agricultural land to develop the real estate industry. While the real estate industry is developed, the pockets of government officials who control the land are more "developed".


  Li Jinhua, former auditor general of the National Audit Office, reported that in 2005, 60 of the 87 development zones in China illegally sold land at low prices. In order to "attract investment", in the State Council, it is forbidden to sell land at a low price, so some places take the means of signing a land transfer contract in accordance with state regulations, and then returning the land transfer fee or giving financial subsidies to sell land at a low price in disguise. This not only enables individual officials and enterprises to transfer benefits to each other, but also leads some enterprises to maliciously occupy and resell land. Take land income as extra-budgetary income and evade the supervision of the National People’s Congress.


  Countermeasures: Give the power of land resources allocation to the market, laws and systems.


  In order to solve the "collusion" between officials and developers and fundamentally reverse this situation, we must take a multi-pronged approach, start with the system, legal system and mechanism, introduce and improve external supervision, and hand over the power of land resource allocation to the market, law and system. Some suggestions are put forward.


  It is necessary to cut off the hand of government officials reaching out to the land. First of all, it is necessary to reduce the government’s intervention in microeconomic activities, especially to fundamentally change the behavior of individual local governments in using land to accumulate wealth, accumulate wealth and generate wealth, ban land finance, and all state-owned land transfer fees will be included in the fiscal budget. Establish an official’s property and income declaration system, and the part and consumption that exceed the statutory income will be determined as illegal income unless the source can be explained.


  Reform the land expropriation system and strictly demarcate the boundaries of public interests. Strictly stipulate the land acquisition procedures, even if it is a public land acquisition, we should raise the compensation standard for land acquisition in public interest, give reasonable and fair compensation to the land-expropriated farmers, and enable farmers to share the fruits of industrialization and urbanization.


  Strengthen the supervision and restraint of the main leaders of the land management department and the government. Simple moral preaching is not enough. It is necessary to introduce various social forces (especially the masses and news media) into the mechanism to supervise the power of officials and strengthen the transparency of land transactions. Standardize the procedures of land auction, auction and transfer, clarify the trading rules and improve the market operation.


  Change the pattern of interest distribution between the central and local governments. Make the respective powers and financial rights of the central government and local governments correspond, and reverse the internal motivation of local governments to make money by borrowing land. Reform the current tax-sharing system, re-divide the distribution ratio of the current shared tax, and appropriately increase the sharing ratio of local governments (such as value-added tax). (The author is Cai Jiming, director and professor of Tsinghua University Political Economy Research Center)