To achieve high-quality development, we need to step up the "short board"

  Cannikin Law tells us that the short board is the key factor to determine the capacity of the whole barrel. No matter how long the short board is, it has no practical significance. The same is true of economic development. Shortcomings not only affect the speed of economic growth, but also restrict the quality of economic development. At the moment when "China’s economy has shifted from a high-speed growth stage to a high-quality development stage", in order to effectively improve the quality and efficiency of economic operation, we must make real contributions and see practical results by "complementing the shortcomings".

  There are shortcomings in any period of economic development. In the stage of rapid growth, the main shortcomings of China’s economic operation are lack of materials and supply, and serious supply shortages such as transportation, energy and communication have become "bottlenecks". At the stage of high-quality development, the new shortcomings are highlighted. For example, compared with the economic growth rate, quality and efficiency are shortcomings; Compared with the virtual economy, the real economy is a short board; Compared with urban economy, rural economy is a short board; Compared with the economic field, the people’s livelihood field is a short board; From the point of view that the institutional mechanism adapts to the new requirements of economic and social development, the lack of institutional supply is a shortcoming. Therefore, it is an inevitable choice for China’s economy to move towards high-quality development. We must start from the important areas and key links that seriously restrict economic and social development and the outstanding problems that the people urgently need to solve, and make up for both hard and soft shortcomings, both development shortcomings and system shortcomings.

  From the analysis, focusing on the high-quality economic development, among many shortcomings, three key shortcomings should be given priority: insufficient scientific and technological innovation, lagging system and unsmooth economic cycle.

  Fill in the shortcomings of scientific and technological innovation

  From a macro perspective, the key reason for the short quality of economic development is the lack of innovation drive. Innovation is the propeller of high-quality development. Only by constantly innovating and fully applying innovation results to economic activities can product quality be improved, people’s new needs can be continuously met, economic operation efficiency can be improved, and the economy can embark on the track of high-quality development.




  The second is to make up for the "short" of education. High quality development depends on innovation, innovation depends on talents, and the cultivation of innovative talents depends on education. The key to cultivate more innovative talents is to change the educational concept and the examination-oriented education model. The cultivation of innovative talents must be eclectic and teach students with different interests and talents in accordance with their aptitude. Higher education should allocate more resources to frontier disciplines and the cultivation of innovative talents, so that more talents with open thinking can stand out. To fill the shortcomings of education, we need to continue to increase funding and strengthen the efforts to improve the quality of teachers, so that high-quality teachers can cultivate high-quality students. In order to attract more outstanding talents to join the teaching staff, it is essential to improve the status and treatment of teachers. Moreover, the cultivation of innovative talents also needs the help of family education. Good family education is the soil for cultivating students’ exploration spirit, independent thinking ability and habits.

  Fill in the shortcomings of the system

  To achieve high-quality economic development, we must also fill in the shortcomings of the system. Without a matching system, high-quality development cannot be achieved. To a certain extent, the intensity of system reform determines the progress of high-quality development. The reform of the economic system must be accelerated, deepened in an all-round way, and key breakthroughs must be made to provide strong institutional support for high-quality development. In particular, the reform in the following three key areas must be intensified, accelerated, and take substantial steps.

  The first is the reform of the state-owned enterprise system. Whether China’s economy can achieve high-quality development depends to a great extent on whether the state-owned enterprises that play a leading role in the national economy can achieve high-quality development. The Decision of the Central Committee of the Communist Party of China on Several Major Issues of Comprehensively Deepening Reform, adopted by the Third Plenary Session of the 18th CPC Central Committee, puts forward that the mixed ownership economy is "an important realization form of the basic economic system". To achieve high-quality development, it is necessary to promote the reform of mixed ownership of state-owned enterprises, expand the reform of mixed ownership in key areas, attract non-state-owned capital to participate in shares, implement employee stock ownership, improve corporate governance structure and enhance the vitality of state-owned enterprises. At the same time, it is necessary to deepen the reform of state-owned assets management system, implement a targeted "streamline administration, delegate power, strengthen regulation and improve services" for state-owned enterprises, and accelerate the transformation from managing enterprises to managing capital, so as to make state-owned enterprises stronger, better and bigger in the market competition.

  The second is the reform of the financial system. The importance of financial system reform to achieve high-quality development lies in that both the financial system and the financial system have an important impact on resource allocation and structural adjustment, which is related to the quality of economic development. Where the huge budget funds are invested and used, whether they can avoid inefficient and ineffective investment, realize efficient allocation and promote high-quality development, will inevitably depend on the improvement of the financial system. Therefore, we must deepen the reform of fiscal and taxation system to make it "comprehensive, standardized, open and transparent"; Improve the budget management system and promote the reform of income division between the central and local governments; Improve the transfer payment system, deepen the reform of value-added tax, and establish a standardized and reasonable central and local government debt management and risk early warning mechanism. At the same time, to achieve high-quality development, especially to promote the development of high-tech industries, we must give full play to the role of financial markets, especially capital markets, in resource allocation. One of the problems in China’s financial system is that the proportion of indirect financing is too large, the capital market is underdeveloped, the mechanism is imperfect, and the role of efficient allocation of resources cannot be fully exerted. Another problem existing in the financial system is that a large amount of funds are "divorced from reality", and the financing problems of enterprises, especially small and medium-sized enterprises, have not been solved well for a long time, which has affected the efficiency and benefit of economic operation. The focus of financial system reform is to promote financial market-oriented reform, expand the opening of the financial industry to the outside world, gradually liberalize access restrictions, improve the multi-level capital market system, and increase the proportion of direct financing.

  The third is the reform of the income distribution system. The significance of the reform of income distribution system for high-quality development lies in that distribution, as a basic link of social reproduction, plays an important guiding role in resource flow and resource allocation. How to distribute the produced things and whether they are distributed reasonably will not only affect the consumption structure and demand structure, but also affect the investment structure and supply structure. The supply-side structural reform has continuously made new progress, which is inseparable from the cooperation of the reform of the income distribution system. Relieving the pressure of excessive personal income gap, releasing consumption potential and effectively expanding the total social demand are also inseparable from the deepening reform of the income distribution system. At present, the focus of the reform of income distribution system is to accelerate the reform of taxation, wages, social security, transfer payment and other institutional mechanisms.

  Fill the short board of economic cycle

  The Central Economic Work Conference held in December 2018 proposed that "it is necessary to smooth the national economic cycle and accelerate the construction of a unified, open and competitive modern market system". Emphasis on "unblocking the national economic cycle" aims at "unblocking the cycle". Chinese medicine says, "the general principle is painless, but the pain is unreasonable", and the same is true for economic operation. The "unsmooth" economic cycle not only hinders the flow of factors, but also increases transaction costs, resulting in low efficiency and efficiency of economic operation. The key to smooth the economic cycle is to remove the "obstruction" of the economic cycle, clear up the obstacles of the economic cycle, and make all parts and links of various economic departments interconnected and various factors flow smoothly.

  Judging from the actual operation of China’s economy, the "unsmooth circulation" has become a shortcoming that restricts high-quality development. For a long time, local protection, industry monopoly, administrative intervention, access restrictions, ownership discrimination and many other factors have hindered the formation of a unified national market. Various market players cannot compete in a fair market environment, and the market’s function of efficiently allocating resources cannot be fully exerted.

  Resources are limited. Whether the limited resources can be allocated to the most needed fields, the most promising industries and the most efficient enterprises, so as to avoid or reduce the mismatch of resources and improve the efficiency of economic operation mainly depends on whether the national economic cycle can be smooth, and whether a unified, open and competitive modern market system can be formed. Only when the market is open and the circulation is smooth can the economy live.

  To smooth the national economic cycle and achieve high-quality development, we need to make key breakthroughs in the following aspects.

  First, smooth the circulation of real economy and virtual economy. On the one hand, the real economy is the fundamental source of wealth creation and the material basis for the development of virtual economy; On the other hand, the development of real economy can not be separated from the support of virtual economy, especially finance as its basic form, and finance is the blood of real economy. The problem now is that the structure of the real economy and the virtual economy is unbalanced, the circulation is not smooth, the virtual economy is excessively prosperous, and a large amount of funds are "divorced from reality", which has seriously affected the development of the real economy. To fill the shortcomings of the real economy, we must follow the requirements of the report of the 19 th National Congress of the Communist Party of China. "We must focus on the real economy and improve the quality of the supply system as the main direction." Accordingly, finance must improve its ability to serve the real economy and promote the benign interaction between the real economy and the virtual economy. To smooth the circulation of real economy and virtual economy, we should give full play to the function of capital market and increase the proportion of direct financing; Further reduce taxes and fees, reduce the burden on enterprises, and increase financial support for small and medium-sized enterprises and innovation and entrepreneurship; Strengthen financial supervision to curb the "self-circulation" of funds in the financial system. It is necessary to take multiple measures to promote the concentration of resources in the real economy.

  The second is to smooth the economic cycle between urban and rural areas. The urban-rural economic cycle is not smooth, which is a major problem that must be solved when China’s economy embarks on the track of high-quality development. The gap between urban and rural areas caused by the dual structure of urban and rural areas makes more resources flow from rural areas with low income to cities with high income, while urban resources rarely flow to rural areas, which intensifies the contradiction between urban and rural areas and makes it difficult for urban and rural economies to integrate and develop. To solve the problem of unsmooth urban-rural economic circulation and fill the shortcomings of rural development, we must not only use the "hand of the government" to invest more public resources in rural areas, but also use the "hand of the market" to guide the factors of production to gather in rural areas, so as to realize the efficient allocation of rural resources, promote the high-quality development of rural economy and make up for the shortcomings of long-term lagging rural economic development. Therefore, we must break down the institutional obstacles that affect the development of urban-rural integration, among which the most crucial thing is to deepen the reform of rural land system, truly attract more elements such as capital, talents, science and technology to flow to the countryside, leave the rural funds and labor force that may flow out in rural areas to combine with the land, enhance the value of rural land through the play of the market, realize the efficient allocation of resources, and provide sustained endogenous power for rural revitalization.


  总之,要实现高质量发展,必须加紧补齐关键短板,突破瓶颈制约,疏“堵点”、通“经络”,使国民经济焕发新活力。 (本文来源:经济日报 作者:中央党校(国家行政学院)习近平新时代中国特色社会主义思想研究中心 执笔:赵长茂)

Citrus with falling prices, apples that can’t be sold … How can the fruit industry spend the cold winter smoothly?

How to spend the winter of fruit industry smoothly?

  As the Spring Festival approaches, the fruit consumption market begins to "pick up", and consumers buy fruits in supermarkets. Our reporter Wang Xiaochuan photo

  Beginning of spring has passed, and the breeze is beginning to bring some warmth.

  But for the vast majority of fruit people, this "winter" is cold and long, and it is really a bit difficult.

  Cherry, once the "pearl of fruit industry", has been sold from the past to today’s ten pounds of postage, and has already stepped down from the altar. The "freedom of cherries", which was once pursued hard, now seems like telling a cold joke to the fruit industry.

  It’s not just cherries that are sad.

  Domestic fruits, led by citrus, are also in a difficult position to support. From January to December 2020, the average wholesale price of bulk fruits monitored by the Ministry of Agriculture and Rural Affairs decreased by 9.8% compared with 2019. Some merchants feel more directly, "the price of fruit has dropped by at least 30% year-on-year".

  What is even more helpless is that even if the price has been "discounted", the volume of fruit still does not improve.

  The China Fruit Circulation Association recently issued the "Initiative on Doing a Good Job in Current Fruit Sales", calling on the whole industry to actively respond to the crisis and spend the cold winter together.

  The sudden "cold" and "freezing" made people in the fruit industry a little confused. The price that can’t be raised, the fruit that can’t be sold, the warehouse piled up like a mountain, and the fruit industry people are waiting for the arrival of spring.

  An expanding orchard

  Guangxi Lipu Sugar Orange is a well-known regional public brand of citrus. In 2016, when the reporter went to Guangxi for an interview, an orange farmer joked: "The Bureau of Industry and Commerce of the Finance Bureau, it is better for me to go home and plant sugar oranges!"

  Now, it seems that it is the last glory of sugar orange.

  In 2016-2017, the average price of sugar oranges in Guangxi once reached a high of 12.6 yuan per kilogram, and countless fruit farmers lived in the "Citrus House" by relying on their 10 acres of citrus orchards.

  The sudden epidemic in 2020 poured cold water on the head of sugar orange. Fruit merchants can’t get in, fruits can’t get out, and there are not a few citrus orchards that have been abandoned.

  The accident that was regarded by many people at that time was repeated again this year. Just a month ago, the average price of sugar oranges in Guangxi hit a deep pit in 1.2 yuan per catty. This price is even lower than the input cost of fruit farmers.

  For fruit farmers, it is not important to pick the fruit or not, which is doomed to be a loss.

  This ending was actually buried as early as a few years ago when sugar oranges were expensive. The price of citrus is soaring, and the industrial and commercial capital with a keen sense of smell is coming into the "orange". Guilin and other sugar oranges are planted in big markets, and fruit farmers even compete to transfer land to other markets. Planting sugar oranges is like planting a cash cow.

  Zhao Junyi, chief fruit analyst of the agricultural products market analysis and early warning team of the Ministry of Agriculture and Rural Affairs, told the reporter that the area and output of citrus have been increasing continuously in recent years. In 2018, citrus output surpassed apples to become the largest fruit raw product category in China, and in 2019, citrus output accounted for 24.1% of the total output of garden fruits in China.

  The continuous expansion of orchards will inevitably bring high supply. Citrus is not resistant to storage, so it is inevitable that "price stampede" will occur when it is listed centrally.

  This cold winter in the fruit industry, when the new citrus season came on the market in November last year, has already begun to show signs. Wuming Wogan, Lipu Sugar Orange and other popular "star" fruits in the past are not only unsatisfactory in price, but also worrying in sales volume. Only when they are listed can they not be sold. Fruit farmers have to beg the buyers to take as many goods as possible.

  Chen Yucheng, head of Sihui Cuitian Agricultural Science and Technology Co., Ltd. in Zhaoqing City, Guangdong Province, said frankly: "The pressure this year is particularly great. Some time ago, due to the influence of the cold wave, it was difficult to sell in the north. Coupled with the epidemic situation and the low price of foreign fruits, the confidence that fruit farmers had just stabilized was somewhat shaken. "

  The pressure of continuous loss is transmitted to fruit quality through fruit farmers. A person in charge of Guangxi Fruit Technical Guidance Station told the reporter that due to the poor market, the willingness of growers to invest has been greatly reduced, and the investment in organic fertilizer and film mulching has decreased accordingly, which has led to the decline of fruit quality, further affecting sales and forming a vicious circle.

  Fruits piled up in the warehouse

  It’s not just fruit farmers who are suffering from the cold winter. The pressure on fruit dealers may be even greater.

  According to the data of Guangxi agricultural products production and marketing price monitoring and early warning system, on February 5th, the origin price of sugar orange was higher than the wholesale price per kilogram in 0.3 yuan. It is hard to imagine that the wholesale price is upside down with the origin price in any industry.

  There are also traditional bulk fruits such as apples and pears on sale. In the 2020 crop season, the national apple output is about 41 million tons, and it still maintains a relatively stable supply. Looking at the whole year, the prices of Fuji apples and Yali pears dropped by 28% and 28% respectively compared with the previous year.

  "The sales situation is not ideal. Some dealers sell at a loss of 50 cents per catty. After all, it will cost more to continue to put it in the cold storage." Lu Fangxiao, president of China Fruit Circulation Association, said.

  However, it is difficult to reverse the situation that the inventory of cold storage continues to be high. It is reported that about 11 million tons of apples will be stored in the cold storage in 2020, an increase of 8% year-on-year, and a record high.

  Many dealers spent a lot of money on Apple last year, but this year they are trapped by Apple. The strong market during the new listing of apples in 2020 attracted many pear merchants, garlic merchants and ginger merchants to join the inventory. In January 2021, the cold inventory of apples was about 1.5 million tons higher than that of the same period of the previous year.

  What is the pressure on the sales side of the fruit industry? According to the data of China Fruit Circulation Association, the total domestic fruit output this year is 274 million tons. This means that Chinese people need to consume nearly a catty of fruit every day to complete the task of destocking the fruit industry.

  Domestic fruits are under pressure, and the annual festival of imported fruits is also difficult. Imported fruits, a popular gift before the Spring Festival in previous years, have continued to shrink this year, and they are also facing the pressure of high inventory. Taking cherries as an example, it is preliminarily estimated that there are nearly 1,500-2,000 cabinets in stock in China at present, and 5,000 cabinets will arrive in Hong Kong before the Spring Festival.

  The epidemic situation in COVID-19 has become a cloud that cannot be dispersed on the head of imported fruits. Consumers’ panic about imported fruits has led to a decrease in purchasing desire and a sharp drop in sales volume.

  A dealer who has been engaged in the import fruit business all the year round said that in order to attract consumers, he launched a "fruit gift package" that had never been seen before, and hung the report on the results of cold chain disinfection treatment conspicuously. Even so, there are still customers who are worried.

  On the one hand, the fruit farmers begged, on the other hand, the consumers hesitated, and the dealers caught in the middle looked at the goods piled up in the warehouse and wanted to cry. For many fruit distributors, "surviving" has become the biggest wish this year.

  Lost traditional market

  It has to be admitted that the epidemic situation is profoundly changing the fruit industry in China.

  Under the epidemic situation, the consumption demand of fruit as a non-necessity is slightly weak, which is directly reflected in the traditional wholesale market. The relevant person in charge of Beijing Xinfadi Market told the reporter that compared with previous years, the shipment of fruits dropped by about 40% this year. This data also applies to many offline chain retail stores.

  A dealer in Guangxi said that some fresh fruit farms shipped five or six cars in the past day, but now there are only two or three cars a day, and the popularity is bleak, far less than in previous years.

  In sharp contrast, the online market is hot. Jing Changbao, director of purchasing food, told the reporter that in 2020, the overall sales of fresh food on the platform will increase by three times, and consumers’ acceptance of various brands of agricultural products and landmark products will be significantly improved.

  Compared with vegetables, fruits are obviously more suitable for online sales. According to a report released by China Academy of Agricultural Sciences, fruit was the largest category of online retail sales of agricultural products in 2019, accounting for 38.3%. The information disclosed by the person in charge of a fruit market consulting company is more intuitive. In the terminal sales of Apple, online sales reached 14%, the proportion of direct mining was 35%, and the proportion of farmers’ market dropped to about 40%.

  The rules of the game have changed, and a large number of fruit stall owners have to change careers. "Online is direct supply from the place of origin, and the price sold to end consumers is even lower than our purchase price."

  However, the final trend of online sales is still controversial in the industry.

  "Community group buying, which was popular some time ago, also had a big impact on the fruit market. However, we believe that this low-price sales method is unsustainable and will eventually lead to vicious competition and low-price competition. In the long run, consumers will suffer. " Lu Fangxiao said.

  Where is the spring of fruit industry?

  How to spend the winter in the fruit industry smoothly?

  In the eyes of the industry, the overall progress of fruit sales is slow now, which is more of a structural reason. There are many kinds of fruits, and consumers have great choices. 20 years ago, the scene of carrying sacks to buy apples is no longer there, and the trend of individualization, quality and branding of fruit consumption is becoming more and more obvious.

  In the eyes of young consumers, traditional fruits such as apples and pears are no longer the first choice, and "liking the new and hating the old" is their consumption habit. From sugar orange five years ago, Wogan orange three years ago, to "online celebrity" jelly orange and ugly orange today, the rapid change of market hotspots has left many fruit farmers at a loss.

  "Overall, the total supply of fruits in China is more than enough, and the structural contradictions are prominent. staple goods is everywhere, lacking safe, green and high-quality fruits." Lu Fangxiao believes that to fundamentally solve the problem of fruit industry, the key is to put an end to the disorderly expansion of production end. Only by adhering to high-quality development, continuously accelerating the improvement of varieties, continuously optimizing planting structure according to market demand, and cultivating more influential and well-known brands can consumers truly satisfy their pursuit of a better life.

  Under pressure, it is urgent to adjust the industrial structure. Guangxi, which ranks first in citrus production in China, has taken the lead in moving. The Guiding Opinions on Promoting the High-quality Development of Citrus Industry in Guangxi issued in November 2020 clearly pointed out that it is necessary to avoid following the trend, prevent industrial recession, and strive to further optimize the citrus structure and layout.

  Embracing new channels has also become a compulsory course for traditional "fruit people". Some traditional channel dealers began to take the initiative to "get an electric shock online", hoping to take the sales path of combining online and offline at the same time and get closer to consumers.

  Some dealers hope to make a "turnaround" by using "online celebrity" fruit, and regional public brands and landmark agricultural products become their first choice. The "2020 Online Consumption Trend Report of Agricultural Products" released by JD.COM Big Data Research Institute shows that at the moment when the brands of well-known agricultural products enterprises are not prominent, the place of origin has become the primary label of agricultural products quality.

  In fact, even if we are experiencing the cold winter, people in the fruit industry feel differently. According to the data provided by JD.COM, the turnover of landmark agricultural products in the first half of 2020 still increased by 74% year-on-year. Fine brands such as Sichuan Ugly Orange and Yunnan Blueberry have seen a leap in sales.

  The next spring of the fruit industry may be in these changes.

Where can I check the location of the self-study exam?

With the increasing requirements of enterprises for academic qualifications, many employees will also use their spare time to improve their academic qualifications. The form of self-study exam has become the choice of many people. Then, where can I find the location of the self-study exam?

Click to enter:If you have any questions about the self-study exam, don’t know how to choose the main examination institution and major, and don’t know the local policy of self-study exam, click to learn now > >

Where can I check the location of the self-study exam?

1. Candidates can go to the self-study office for consultation when applying for the self-study exam.

2. Admission ticket inquiry: The self-taught admission ticket contains information such as the test site address, examination room, seat number and test subjects.

3. Online inquiry: Candidates can log in to the online registration system of the self-taught examination of the Provincial Education Examinations Institute, select the admission ticket or the examination notice, and enter the account number and password to inquire about the seat number information of the examination center.

4. Telephone inquiry: Candidates can directly call the self-study office in their urban areas for consultation, report their ID number and name, and the staff of the self-study office will help with the inquiry.

If the candidates need to go to the city to take the exam in a township, or if the candidates live in the city and need to go to another city to take the exam, it takes several hours by car to reach the test center, and the long distance on the day of the exam may affect the exam. There are the following solutions, which can be used as reference for the exam. Choose the method that suits you:

1. Candidates should step on the spot in advance to avoid being too late to panic on the day of the exam.

2. If you can’t attend the examination room on the day of the exam, candidates should book a hotel at the attachment of the test center one day in advance and stay in the hotel to reduce the fatigue of running around on the day of the exam.

1. Self-taught admission ticket and ID card

The admission ticket and my valid ID card must be brought. Without the admission ticket, students who can’t enter the examination room and haven’t printed the admission ticket can print it as soon as possible. It is suggested that you can prepare more copies in advance and open them in different locations to prevent them from being found temporarily.

2. Gel pens, 2B pencils, erasers, compasses and triangles.

The above is related to the adult self-study exam, and candidates can use it as a reference, which is subject to the official announcement! Candidates want to get more information about the self-taught examination, such as the registration time, examination time, application conditions, preparation knowledge, relevant news, etc. Please pay attention to the online self-taught examination channel of China Education.

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In April, 2024, all provinces registered for self-study exams in official website.

Summary of Registration Time and Entrance of Self-taught Exams in April 2024 by Provinces